2013AJ....146...32S
The Multi-object, Fiber-fed Spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
Smee, Stephen A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Gunn, James E. ( Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA ); Uomoto, Alan ( Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA ); Roe, Natalie ( Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ); Schlegel, David ( Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ); Rockosi, Constance M. ( UC Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 375 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB) Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA ); Carr, Michael A. ( Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA ); Leger, French ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Dawson, Kyle S. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ); Olmstead, Matthew D. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ); Brinkmann, Jon ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Owen, Russell ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Barkhouser, Robert H. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Honscheid, Klaus ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ); Harding, Paul ( Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA ); Long, Dan ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Lupton, Robert H. ( Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA ); Loomis, Craig ( Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA ); Anderson, Lauren ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Annis, James ( Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA ); Bernardi, Mariangela ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ); Bhardwaj, Vaishali ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Bizyaev, Dmitry ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Bolton, Adam S. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ); Brewington, Howard ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Briggs, John W. ( HUT Observatory, Mittelman Family Foundation, P.O. Box 5320, Eagle, CO 81631, USA ); Burles, Scott ( Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA ); Burns, James G. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ); Castander, Francisco Javier ( Institut de Ci encies de l'Espai (IEEC-CSIC), E-08193 Ballaterra, Barcelona, Spain ; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Connolly, Andrew ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Davenport, James R. A. ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Ebelke, Garrett ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Epps, Harland ( UC Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 375 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB) Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA ); Feldman, Paul D. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Friedman, Scott D. ( Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Frieman, Joshua ( Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA ); Heckman, Timothy ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA ); Hull, Charles L. ( Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA ); Knapp, Gillian R. ( Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA ); Lawrence, David M. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ); Loveday, Jon ( Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK ); Mannery, Edward J. ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Malanushenko, Elena ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Malanushenko, Viktor ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Merrelli, Aronne James ( Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA ); Muna, Demitri ( Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA ); Newman, Peter R. ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Nichol, Robert C. ( Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG), Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK ); Oravetz, Daniel ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Pan, Kaike ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Pope, Adrian C. ( High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA ); Ricketts, Paul G. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ); Shelden, Alaina ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Sandford, Dale ( UC Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 375 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB) Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA ); Siegmund, Walter ( Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195, USA ); Simmons, Audrey ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Smith, D. Shane ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ); Snedden, Stephanie ( Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349, USA ); Schneider, Donald P. ( Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA ; Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802, USA ); SubbaRao, Mark ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ); Tremonti, Christy ( Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53703, USA ); Waddell, Patrick ( NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA ); York, Donald G. ( Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA ) and 53 coauthors show affiliations
The Astronomical Journal, Volume 146, Issue 2, article id. 32, 40 pp. (2013).
Published in Aug 2013
We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ~ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.
Keywords:
Free Keywords: Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics; cosmology: observations; instrumentation: spectrographs; surveys
Astronomy: cosmology: observations; instrumentation: spectrographs; surveys
arXiv: Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics
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