2013Natur.493..187M
Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31
Middleton, Matthew J. ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK; Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands ); Miller-Jones, James C. A. ( International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia ); Markoff, Sera ( Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands ); Fender, Rob ( School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK ); Henze, Martin ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Hurley-Walker, Natasha ( International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia ); Scaife, Anna M. M. ( School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK ); Roberts, Timothy P. ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK ); Walton, Dominic ( Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA ); Carpenter, John ( Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA ); Macquart, Jean-Pierre ( International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia ); Bower, Geoffrey C. ( Astronomy Department, B-20 Hearst Field, Annex no. 3411, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-3411, USA ); Gurwell, Mark ( Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA ); Pietsch, Wolfgang ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Haberl, Frank ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Harris, Jonathan ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK ); Daniel, Michael ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK ); Miah, Junayd ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK ); Done, Chris ( Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK ); Morgan, John S. ( International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia ); Dickinson, Hugh ( Stockholm University, Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden ); Charles, Phil ( School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK; Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Republic of South Africa ); Burwitz, Vadim ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Valle, Massimo Della ( Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, INAF, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy; International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics, Piazzale della Repubblica 2, 65122 Pescara, Italy ); Freyberg, Michael ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Greiner, Jochen ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Hernanz, Margarita ( Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultade de Ciències, Torre C5 parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain ); Hartmann, Dieter H. ( Physics and Astronomy Department, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29631-0978, USA ); Hatzidimitriou, Despina ( Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Zografou, Athens, Greece ); Riffeser, Arno ( University Observatory Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 München, Germany ); Sala, Gloria ( Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, EUETIB (UPC-IEEC), calle Comte d'Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona, Spain ); Seitz, Stella ( University Observatory Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 München, Germany ); Reig, Pablo ( Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Νikolaou Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece ); Rau, Arne ( Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany ); Orio, Marina ( Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy ); Titterington, David ( Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK ); Grainge, Keith ( Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK ) and 27 coauthors show affiliations
Nature, Volume 493, Issue 7431, pp. 187-190 (2013).
Published in Jan 2013
A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities of less than 1040 erg s-1 ref. 1) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ~5-20, probably by means of an accretion disk. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources; the radio emission originates in a relativistic jet thought to be launched from the innermost regions near the black hole, with the most powerful emission occurring when the rate of infalling matter approaches a theoretical maximum (the Eddington limit). Only four such maximal sources are known in the Milky Way, and the absorption of soft X-rays in the interstellar medium hinders the determination of the causal sequence of events that leads to the ejection of the jet. Here we report radio and X-ray observations of a bright new X-ray source in the nearby galaxy M 31, whose peak luminosity exceeded 1039 erg s-1. The radio luminosity is extremely high and shows variability on a timescale of tens of minutes, arguing that the source is highly compact and powered by accretion close to the Eddington limit onto a black hole of stellar mass. Continued radio and X-ray monitoring of such sources should reveal the causal relationship between the accretion flow and the powerful jet emission.
Keywords:
Free Keywords: Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
arXiv: Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
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