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2013PhRvL.111b1103A
First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube
Aartsen, M. G. ( School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide South Australia 5005, Australia ); Abbasi, R. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Abdou, Y. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Ackermann, M. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Adams, J. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand ); Aguilar, J. A. ( Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève, Switzerland ); Ahlers, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Altmann, D. ( Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany ); Auffenberg, J. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Bai, X. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Baker, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Barwick, S. W. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA ); Baum, V. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Bay, R. ( Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Beatty, J. J. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA ); Bechet, S. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Becker Tjus, J. ( Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany ); Becker, K. -H. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Bell, M. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Benabderrahmane, M. L. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); BenZvi, S. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Berdermann, J. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Berghaus, P. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Berley, D. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Bernardini, E. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Bernhard, A. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Bertrand, D. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Besson, D. Z. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA ); Binder, G. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Bindig, D. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Bissok, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Blaufuss, E. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Blumenthal, J. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Boersma, D. J. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Bohaichuk, S. ( Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 ); Bohm, C. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Bose, D. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Böser, S. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Botner, O. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Brayeur, L. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Bretz, H. -P. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Brown, A. M. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand ); Bruijn, R. ( Laboratory for High Energy Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ); Brunner, J. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Carson, M. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Casey, J. ( School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA ); Casier, M. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Chirkin, D. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Christov, A. ( Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève, Switzerland ); Christy, B. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Clark, K. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Clevermann, F. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Coenders, S. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Cohen, S. ( Laboratory for High Energy Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ); Cowen, D. F. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Cruz Silva, A. H. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Danninger, M. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Daughhetee, J. ( School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA ); Davis, J. C. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA ); De Clercq, C. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); De Ridder, S. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Desiati, P. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); de With, M. ( Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany ); DeYoung, T. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Dunkman, M. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Eagan, R. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Eberhardt, B. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Eisch, J. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Ellsworth, R. W. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Euler, S. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Evenson, P. A. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Fadiran, O. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Fazely, A. R. ( Department of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA ); Fedynitch, A. ( Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany ); Feintzeig, J. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Feusels, T. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Filimonov, K. ( Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Finley, C. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Fischer-Wasels, T. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Flis, S. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Franckowiak, A. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Franke, R. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Frantzen, K. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Fuchs, T. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Gaisser, T. K. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Gallagher, J. ( Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Gerhardt, L. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Gladstone, L. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Glüsenkamp, T. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Goldschmidt, A. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Golup, G. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Gonzalez, J. G. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Goodman, J. A. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Góra, D. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Grant, D. ( Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 ); Groß, A. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Gurtner, M. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Ha, C. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Haj Ismail, A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Hallen, P. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Hallgren, A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Halzen, F. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Hanson, K. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Heereman, D. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Heinen, D. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Helbing, K. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Hellauer, R. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Hickford, S. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand ); Hill, G. C. ( School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide South Australia 5005, Australia ); Hoffman, K. D. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Hoffmann, R. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Homeier, A. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Hoshina, K. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Huelsnitz, W. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Hulth, P. O. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Hultqvist, K. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Hussain, S. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Ishihara, A. ( Department of Physics, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan ); Jacobi, E. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Jacobsen, J. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Jagielski, K. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Japaridze, G. S. ( CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314, USA ); Jero, K. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Jlelati, O. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Kaminsky, B. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Kappes, A. ( Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany ); Karg, T. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Karle, A. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Kelley, J. L. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Kiryluk, J. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800, USA ); Kislat, F. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Kläs, J. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Klein, S. R. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Köhne, J. -H. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Kohnen, G. ( Université de Mons, 7000 Mons, Belgium ); Kolanoski, H. ( Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany ); Köpke, L. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Kopper, C. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Kopper, S. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Koskinen, D. J. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Kowalski, M. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Krasberg, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Krings, K. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Kroll, G. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Kunnen, J. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Kurahashi, N. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Kuwabara, T. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Labare, M. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Landsman, H. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Larson, M. J. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Lesiak-Bzdak, M. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800, USA ); Leuermann, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Leute, J. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Lünemann, J. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Madsen, J. ( Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, Wisconsin 54022, USA ); Maruyama, R. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Mase, K. ( Department of Physics, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan ); Matis, H. S. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); McNally, F. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Meagher, K. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Merck, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Mészáros, P. ( Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Meures, T. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Miarecki, S. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Middell, E. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Milke, N. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Miller, J. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Mohrmann, L. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Montaruli, T. ( Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève, Switzerland ); Morse, R. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Nahnhauer, R. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Naumann, U. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Niederhausen, H. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800, USA ); Nowicki, S. C. ( Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 ); Nygren, D. R. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Obertacke, A. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Odrowski, S. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Olivas, A. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Olivo, M. ( Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany ); O'Murchadha, A. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Paul, L. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Pepper, J. A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Pérez de los Heros, C. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Pfendner, C. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA ); Pieloth, D. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Pinat, E. ( Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Pirk, N. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Posselt, J. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Price, P. B. ( Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Przybylski, G. T. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Rädel, L. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Rameez, M. ( Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève, Switzerland ); Rawlins, K. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Dr., Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA ); Redl, P. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Reimann, R. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Resconi, E. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Rhode, W. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Ribordy, M. ( Laboratory for High Energy Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ); Richman, M. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Riedel, B. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Rodrigues, J. P. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Rott, C. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA ); Ruhe, T. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Ruzybayev, B. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Ryckbosch, D. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Saba, S. M. ( Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany ); Salameh, T. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Sander, H. -G. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Santander, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Sarkar, S. ( Department of Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP, United Kingdom ); Schatto, K. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Scheel, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Scheriau, F. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Schmidt, T. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Schmitz, M. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Schoenen, S. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Schöneberg, S. ( Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany ); Schönwald, A. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Schukraft, A. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Schulte, L. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Schulz, O. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Seckel, D. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Sestayo, Y. ( Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany ); Seunarine, S. ( Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, Wisconsin 54022, USA ); Sheremata, C. ( Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 ); Smith, M. W. E. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Soiron, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Soldin, D. ( Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany ); Spiczak, G. M. ( Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, Wisconsin 54022, USA ); Spiering, C. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Stamatikos, M. ( Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA ); Stanev, T. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Stasik, A. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Stezelberger, T. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Stokstad, R. G. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Stößl, A. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Strahler, E. A. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Ström, R. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Sullivan, G. W. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Taavola, H. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden ); Taboada, I. ( School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA ); Tamburro, A. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Ter-Antonyan, S. ( Department of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA ); Tešić, G. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Tilav, S. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Toale, P. A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Toscano, S. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Usner, M. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); van der Drift, D. ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); van Eijndhoven, N. ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ); Van Overloop, A. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); van Santen, J. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Vehring, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Voge, M. ( Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany ); Vraeghe, M. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium ); Walck, C. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Waldenmaier, T. ( Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany ); Wallraff, M. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Wasserman, R. ( Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA ); Weaver, Ch. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Wellons, M. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Wendt, C. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Westerhoff, S. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Whitehorn, N. ( Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ); Wiebe, K. ( Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany ); Wiebusch, C. H. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Williams, D. R. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Wissing, H. ( Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA ); Wolf, M. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ); Wood, T. R. ( Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 ); Woschnagg, K. ( Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ); Xu, C. ( Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA ); Xu, D. L. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Xu, X. W. ( Department of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA ); Yanez, J. P. ( DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany ); Yodh, G. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA ); Yoshida, S. ( Department of Physics, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan ); Zarzhitsky, P. ( Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA ); Ziemann, J. ( Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany ); Zierke, S. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Zilles, A. ( III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany ); Zoll, M. ( Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden ) and 273 coauthors show affiliations
Physical Review Letters, vol. 111, Issue 2, id. 021103
Published in Jul 2013
We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current νe,μ,τ (ν̄e,μ,τ) or charged-current νe (ν̄e) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082±0.004(stat)-0.057+0.041(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9×10-3 (2.8σ) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time.
Keywords:
Free Keywords: 95.55.Vj; 95.85.Ry; 98.70.Sa; Astrophysics - Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics; Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena; Cosmic rays; Neutrino muon pion and other elementary particle detectors; Neutrino muon pion and other elementary particles; cosmic ray detectors; cosmic rays
PACS Codes: 95.55.Vj; 95.85.Ry; 98.70.Sa
arXiv: Astrophysics - Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics; Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
PACS: Cosmic rays; Neutrino muon pion and other elementary particle detectors; Neutrino muon pion and other elementary particles; cosmic ray detectors; cosmic rays
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